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J Cell Physiol. 2013 Mar;228(3):502-12. doi: 10.1002/jcp.24157.

Modulation of macrophage activation and programming in immunity.

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Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, PR China.


Macrophages are central mediators of the immune, contributing both to the initiation and the resolution of inflammation. The concept of macrophage activation and program has stimulated interest in its definition, and functional significance in homeostasis and diseases. It has been known that macrophages could be differently activated and programmed into different functional subtypes in response to different types of antigen stumuli or different kinds of cytokines present in the microenvironment and could thus profoundly influence immune responses, but little is known about the state and exact regulatory mechanism of macrophage activation and program from cell or molecular signaling level in immunity. In this review, we summarize the recent finding regarding the regulatory mechanism of macrophage activation and program toward M1 and M2, especially on M2 macrophages.

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