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Comp Med. 2012 Jun;62(3):229-33.

Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia purpura in a Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

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Department of Veterinary Sciences, Michale E Keeling Center for Comparative Medicine and Research, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Bastrop, Texas, USA.


A 10-y-old multiparous rhesus macaque presented for an annual routine physical examination. Clinically, the animal had pale mucous membranes, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages in multiple sites, and a laceration at the tail base. Severe pancytopenia was noted on hematologic evaluation. The monkey was seronegative for SIV, simian T-lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus type D, and Macacine herpesvirus 1. Bone marrow evaluation revealed a paucity of megakaryocytic precursors in a hypercellular marrow with marked erythroid hyperplasia. In light of these findings, the diagnosis was acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia purpura. Due to the poor prognosis of the syndrome and clinical deterioration of the monkey, euthanasia was elected. A definitive cause of the thrombocytopenia was not identified; however, the syndrome may have developed secondary to a recent spontaneous abortion. To our knowledge, this case represents the first reported observation of acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia purpura in a rhesus monkey.

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