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Vopr Pitan. 2012;81(2):73-80.

[Immune dysfunction in highly skilled athletes and nutritional rehabilitation].

[Article in Russian]


The present review examines the effects of strenuous and moderate exercise on various components of the immune system including humoral and cell immunity. Acute exercise have been found to affect lymphocyte subsets, immunoglobulin levels, the activity of mononuclear phagocytic system, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and cytokine levels, especially IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF. The extreme type of immune deficiency in sportsmen, in which there are not determine different isotypes of immunoglobulins, there are described as phenomenon of Ig disappearance. The immune suppression is associated with an increased risk of subclinical and clinical infection in athletes. The mechanisms immunodeficiency are multifactorial and include neuroendocrinologocal and metabolic disorders. The immunosuppression in sportsmen may be prevented by use of special diets. Although athletes need to eat a well-balanced basic diet, there are several nutritional factors that are difficult to obtain at a sufficient level from a normal diet since athletes require more nutrients than the recommended daily allowances. Thus, appropriate nutrition enrichment of special products and food supplements containing proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, probiotics is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, recovery from fatigue after exercise and ward off immunodeficiency.

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