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Urologe A. 2012 Jul;51(7):1005-16. doi: 10.1007/s00120-012-2942-2.


[Article in German]

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FEAPU, Sektion Kinderurologie, Klinik und Poliklinik für Urologie, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45122 Essen, Deutschland.


Phimosis is a common condition in which the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis. First appearing at 8 weeks gestation as a ridge of thickened epithelium, the prepuce grows forward over the developing glans. Physiological phimosis is common in male patients up to 3 years of age. Balanoposthitis is an inflammation of the foreskin and glans and occurs in 4-11% of uncircumcised boys. Lack of circumcision has been identified as a risk factor for urinary tract infection in infants as well as several sexually transmitted diseases and penile cancer in adults. Local steroid application showed satisfactory success rates of more than 80% and is recommended as first choice therapy. Male circumcision carried out under the age of 14 years without medical indications is unlawful and classified as bodily harm under German law.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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