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Int J Inflam. 2012;2012:932725. doi: 10.1155/2012/932725. Epub 2012 Jun 11.

Proinflammatory effects of C-Peptide in different tissues.

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Department of Internal Medicine II, Cardiology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Alle 23, 89081 Ulm, Germany.


Atherosclerosis is well known as an inflammatory disease that can lead to clinical complications such as heart attack or stroke. C-peptide as a cleavage product of proinsulin is in the last few decades known as an active peptide with a number of different effects on microvascular and macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetic patients. Patients with insulin resistance and early type 2 diabetes show elevated levels of C-peptide in blood. Several last findings demonstrated deposition of C-peptide in the vessel wall in ApoE-deficient mice and induction of local inflammation. Besides that, C-peptide has proliferative effects on human mesangial cells. This review discusses recently published proinflammatory effects of C-peptide in different tissues.

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