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Molecules. 2012 Jul 3;17(7):8010-21. doi: 10.3390/molecules17078010.

Gamma-mangostin, a micronutrient of mangosteen fruit, induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

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Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, and Center of e-CAM, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 110, Taiwan.


Recently colorectal cancer rates have increased rapidly in Taiwan. The treatment of colorectal cancer includes surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a famous Asian tropical fruit. γ-Mangostin is a xanthone derivative isolated from the fruit hull. In previous studies, we found evidence of anti-inflammatory and anti-brain tumor activities in γ-mangostin. In this study, we performed further studies to assess the apoptotic effects of γ-mangostin on colorectal adenocarcinoma cells HT29. γ-Mangostin showed concentration and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on HT29 cells. Microscopic observation under Giemsa staining showed that γ-mangostin induced cellular swelling and the appearance of apoptotic bodies, characteristic of apoptosis in HT29 cells. In addition, flow cytometry analysis showed an increase of hypodiploid cells in γ-mangostin-treated HT29 cells, while enhancement of intracellular peroxide production was detected in the same γ-mangostin-treated cells by DCHDA assay and DiOC6(3) staining. In view of the above results, γ-mangostin has demonstrated anticancer activity and induces apoptosis in HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The evidence suggests that γ-mangostin could serve as a micronutrient for colon cancer prevention and is a potential lead compound for the development of anti-colon cancer agents.

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