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Rev Sci Instrum. 2012 Jun;83(6):063101. doi: 10.1063/1.4724311.

Velocity-map imaging at low extraction fields.

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Department of Chemistry, University of Durham, South Road, DH1 3LE Durham, United Kingdom.


We present a velocity-map imaging (VMI) setup for photoelectron imaging that utilizes low electric extraction fields. This avoids any complications that could arise from electrostatic interactions between the extraction field and the molecular properties that are probed and has a minimal effect on the trajectory of ions in ion beam experiments. By using an attractive potential supplied to the detector, and keeping the electrodes at ground (zero) potential, we show that fringe fields between the VMI arrangement and the vacuum chamber can be eliminated, which is important in experiments on ions.


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