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N Am J Med Sci. 2012 Jun;4(6):250-6. doi: 10.4103/1947-2714.97202.

Pregnancy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: How Special are Special Issues?

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  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Air Force Hospital, Nathu Singh Road, Kanpur Cantt, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Abstract

India leads the world with largest number of diabetics earning the dubious distinction of "the diabetes capital of the world." Diabetes is associated with maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The number of pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes is increasing, mainly from an increase in type 2 diabetes, but also an increase in type 1 diabetes. Overall, type 1 diabetes accounts for approximately 5% to 10% of all diabetes outside of pregnancy, and in pregnancy put together with type 2 account for 10% of diabetic pregnancies. Management of the pregnant diabetic woman is a complex task that ideally begins before conception. Specific attention is required for diabetic pregnancies in different trimesters of pregnancy. Diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes, can be a challenge in pregnancy, but with education, close monitoring, and latest therapeutic modalities, these women can have healthy newborns. Close attention to diet, glycemic control, metabolic stresses, and early diagnosis and monitoring of complications can make pregnancy a successful experience for women with diabetes. A MedLine search was done to review relevant articles in English literature on diabetes and pregnancy, and specific issues related to pregnancy in type 1 diabetes were reviewed.

KEYWORDS:

Gestational diabetes mellitus; Insulin; Pregnancy; Type 1 diabetes mellitus

PMID:
22754875
PMCID:
PMC3385360
DOI:
10.4103/1947-2714.97202
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