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Sleep. 2012 Jul 1;35(7):909-19. doi: 10.5665/sleep.1950.

Extracellular levels of lactate, but not oxygen, reflect sleep homeostasis in the rat cerebral cortex.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVE:

It is well established that brain metabolism is higher during wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Most of the brain's energy is used to maintain neuronal firing and glutamatergic transmission. Recent evidence shows that cortical firing rates, extracellular glutamate levels, and markers of excitatory synaptic strength increase with time spent awake and decline throughout NREM sleep. These data imply that the metabolic cost of each behavioral state is not fixed but may reflect sleep-wake history, a possibility that is investigated in the current report.

DESIGN:

Chronic (4d) electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in the rat cerebral cortex were coupled with fixed-potential amperometry to monitor the extracellular concentration of oxygen ([oxy]) and lactate ([lac]) on a second-by-second basis across the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and in response to sleep deprivation.

SETTING:

Basic sleep research laboratory.

PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS:

Wistar Kyoto (WKY) adult male rats.

INTERVENTIONS:

N/A.

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:

Within 30-60 sec [lac] and [oxy] progressively increased during wake and REM sleep and declined during NREM sleep (n = 10 rats/metabolite), but with several differences. [Oxy], but not [lac], increased more during wake with high motor activity and/or elevated EEG high-frequency power. Meanwhile, only the NREM decline of [lac] reflected sleep pressure as measured by slow-wave activity, mirroring previous results for cortical glutamate.

CONCLUSIONS:

The observed state-dependent changes in cortical [lac] and [oxy] are consistent with higher brain metabolism during waking and REM sleep in comparison with NREM sleep. Moreover, these data suggest that glycolytic activity, most likely through its link with glutamatergic transmission, reflects sleep homeostasis.

KEYWORDS:

EEG; Lactate; cerebral cortex; in vivo amperometry; oxygen; rat; sleep; slow-wave activity

PMID:
22754037
PMCID:
PMC3369226
DOI:
10.5665/sleep.1950
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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