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Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013 Feb;70(3):407-23. doi: 10.1007/s00018-012-1054-x. Epub 2012 Jul 4.

Overactive bone morphogenetic protein signaling in heterotopic ossification and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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1
Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Centre for Biomedical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Building 2, Room R-02-022, Postzone S-1-P, PO Box 9600, Einthovenweg 20, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important extracellular cytokines that play critical roles in embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. BMPs signal via transmembrane type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad effector proteins. BMP signaling is precisely regulated and perturbation of BMP signaling is connected to multiple diseases, including musculoskeletal diseases. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress in elucidation of BMP signal transduction, how overactive BMP signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of heterotopic ossification and Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and discuss possible therapeutic strategies for treatment of these diseases.

PMID:
22752156
PMCID:
PMC3541930
DOI:
10.1007/s00018-012-1054-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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