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Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2012 Jul;23(3):515-23. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2012 Jun 5.

High-grade gliomas in children.

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  • 1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-0112, USA.


High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are malignant tumors and typically include glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma subtypes. Brainstem gliomas and ependymomas are separate entities with respect to clinical presentation, treatment, prognosis, and outcome in comparison with supratentorial HGGs. In children, these tumors account for 3% to 7% of newly diagnosed brain tumors and 20% of all diagnoses of pediatric supratentorial brain tumors. These neoplasms are highly proliferative and mitotically active and of glial origin. This article reviews clinical, diagnostic, and pathologic features of HGG and current treatments and potential future therapies specific to pediatric patients with HGGs.

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