Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Biochemistry. 2012 Jul 24;51(29):5774-83. doi: 10.1021/bi300530x. Epub 2012 Jul 13.

Fourier-transform infrared study of the photoactivation process of Xenopus (6-4) photolyase.

Author information

  • 1Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan.


Photolyases (PHRs) are blue light-activated DNA repair enzymes that maintain genetic integrity by reverting UV-induced photoproducts into normal bases. The flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) chromophore of PHRs has four different redox states: oxidized (FAD(ox)), anion radical (FAD(•-)), neutral radical (FADH(•)), and fully reduced (FADH(-)). We combined difference Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with UV-visible spectroscopy to study the detailed photoactivation process of Xenopus (6-4) PHR. Two photons produce the enzymatically active, fully reduced PHR from oxidized FAD: FAD(ox) is converted to semiquinone via light-induced one-electron and one-proton transfers and then to FADH(-) by light-induced one-electron transfer. We successfully trapped FAD(•-) at 200 K, where electron transfer occurs but proton transfer does not. UV-visible spectroscopy following 450 nm illumination of FAD(ox) at 277 K defined the FADH(•)/FADH(-) mixture and allowed calculation of difference FTIR spectra among the four redox states. The absence of a characteristic C=O stretching vibration indicated that the proton donor is not a protonated carboxylic acid. Structural changes in Trp and Tyr are suggested by UV-visible and FTIR analysis of FAD(•-) at 200 K. Spectral analysis of amide I vibrations revealed structural perturbation of the protein's β-sheet during initial electron transfer (FAD(•-) formation), a transient increase in α-helicity during proton transfer (FADH(•) formation), and reversion to the initial amide I signal following subsequent electron transfer (FADH(-) formation). Consequently, in (6-4) PHR, unlike cryptochrome-DASH, formation of enzymatically active FADH(-) did not perturb α-helicity. Protein structural changes in the photoactivation of (6-4) PHR are discussed on the basis of these FTIR observations.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for American Chemical Society Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center