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PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38929. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038929. Epub 2012 Jun 22.

Cross-lineage influenza B and heterologous influenza A antibody responses in vaccinated mice: immunologic interactions and B/Yamagata dominance.

Author information

1
Communicable Disease Prevention and Control Services, British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. danuta.skowronski@bccdc.ca

Abstract

The annually reformulated trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) includes both influenza A/subtypes (H3N2 and H1N1) but only one of two influenza B/lineages (Yamagata or Victoria). In a recent series of clinical trials to evaluate prime-boost response across influenza B/lineages, influenza-naïve infants and toddlers originally primed with two doses of 2008-09 B/Yamagata-containing TIV were assessed after two doses of B/Victoria-containing TIV administered in the subsequent 2009-10 and 2010-11 seasons. In these children, the Victoria-containing vaccines strongly recalled antibody to the initiating B/Yamagata antigen but induced only low B/Victoria antibody responses. To further evaluate this unexpected pattern of cross-lineage vaccine responses, we conducted additional immunogenicity assessment in mice. In the current study, mice were primed with two doses of 2008-09 Yamagata-containing TIV and subsequently boosted with two doses of 2010-11 Victoria-containing TIV (Group-Yam/Vic). With the same vaccines, we also assessed the reverse order of two-dose Victoria followed by two-dose Yamagata immunization (Group-Vic/Yam). The Group-Yam/Vic mice showed strong homologous responses to Yamagata antigen. However, as previously reported in children, subsequent doses of Victoria antigen substantially boosted Yamagata but induced only low antibody response to the immunizing Victoria component. The reverse order of Group-Vic/Yam mice also showed low homologous responses to Victoria but subsequent heterologous immunization with even a single dose of Yamagata antigen induced substantial boost response to both lineages. For influenza A/H3N2, homologous responses were comparably robust for the differing TIV variants and even a single follow-up dose of the heterologous strain, regardless of vaccine sequence, substantially boosted antibody to both strains. For H1N1, two doses of 2008-09 seasonal antigen significantly blunted response to two doses of the 2010-11 pandemic H1N1 antigen. Immunologic interactions between influenza viruses considered antigenically distant and in particular the cross-lineage influenza B and dominant Yamagata boost responses we have observed in both human and animal studies warrant further evaluation.

PMID:
22745690
PMCID:
PMC3382187
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0038929
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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