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Cancer Lett. 2012 Dec 1;325(1):26-34. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2012.06.007. Epub 2012 Jun 26.

Keap1: one stone kills three birds Nrf2, IKKβ and Bcl-2/Bcl-xL.

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1
Laboratory of Biological Cancer Therapy, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, PR China.

Abstract

Oxidative stress, implicated in the etiology of cancer, results from an imbalance in the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and cell's own antioxidant defenses. As a oxidative stress sensor, Keap1 functions as both an adaptor for Cul3⋅Rbx1 E3 ligase complex mediated degradation of the transcription factor Nrf2, and a master regulator of cytoprotective gene expression. Although Nrf2 is a well known substrate for Keap1, the DGR domain of Keap1 has been reported also to bind other proteins directly or indirectly. IKKβ as positive regulator of NF-κB is also destabilized by Keap1, which resulted in inhibiting NF-κB-derived tumor promotion. In addition, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-xL protein was identified as another substrate for the Keap1-Cul3-E3 ligase complex. Keap1 led to the repression and destabilization of Bcl-2, decreased Bcl-2:Bax heterodimers and facilitated cancer cells apoptosis. Given that Keap1 might function as a tumor suppressor protein to mitigate tumor progression, the different kinds of Keap1 somatic mutations were detected in numerous cancer cells. Therefore, it is important to understand the Keap1-involved signaling cascades. This review primarily focuses on the prevention of tumorigenesis role of Keap1 through negative regulation of three substrates Nrf2, IKKβ and Bcl-2/Bcl-xL, with emphasis on the recent findings indicating the cancer guarder function of Keap1.

PMID:
22743616
DOI:
10.1016/j.canlet.2012.06.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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