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J Biosci Bioeng. 2012 Nov;114(5):512-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2012.05.025. Epub 2012 Jun 27.

Polyphasic characterization of two microbial consortia with wide dechlorination spectra for chlorophenols.

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Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan.


Two soil-free anaerobic dechlorinating cultures (3-CP and 35-DCP) were enriched from a pentachlorophenol (PCP)-to-phenol dechlorinating soil-dependent culture, using 3-chlorophenol (3-CP) and 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP) as specific respective substrates, and characterized polyphasically. Physiological characterization indicated that the 3-CP and 35-DCP cultures had similar features, but with some variations. Both cultures utilized formate or acetate preferably as optimum electron donors for reductive dechlorination, and they shared similar patterns of dechlorination spectra for chlorophenols ranging from mono-CPs to a tetra-CP, with preferred dechlorination pathways in the ortho and meta positions. Alternative electron acceptors such as NO(3)(-) but not SO(4)(2-) inhibited the dechlorination activity in both cultures, while amorphous iron oxides (FeOOH) suppressed dechlorination activity only in the 35-DCP culture. Complete inhibition of dechlorination was observed in both cultures supplemented with chloramphenicol and vancomycin. The addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate resulted in delayed dechlorination activity in the 35-DCP culture but not in the 3-CP culture; molybdate did not exert any inhibitory effect in either culture. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA genes confirmed that the two cultures exhibited similar bacterial species but with varied responsible dechlorinators. Dehalobacter spp. were the likely dechlorinators in the 3-CP culture versus Sulfurospirillum spp. in the 35-DCP culture, with Clostridium and Clostridium-like spp. as candidate dechlorinators in both cultures.

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