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Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2012 Aug-Oct;23(4-5):181-91. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2012.05.005. Epub 2012 Jun 27.

Cytokine production and dysregulation in HIV pathogenesis: lessons for development of therapeutics and vaccines.

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Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.


Numerous studies have characterized the cytokine modulation observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals, from initial infection through chronic disease. Progressive and non-progressive HIV infection models show the cytokine milieu differs in terms of production and responsiveness in these two groups, suggesting an understanding of the role cytokines play during infection is necessary for directing the immune response toward viral control. This review will cover cytokine induction and dysfunction during HIV pathogenesis, with a focus on the interplay between cytokines and transcription factors, T cell activation, and exhaustion. We highlight cytokines that have either vaccine adjuvant or therapeutic potential and discuss the need to identify key factors required for prevention of progression, clearance of infection, or protection from acquisition.

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