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J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2012 Sep;22(7):705-9. doi: 10.1089/lap.2012.0031. Epub 2012 Jun 28.

IPEG survey on live case demonstrations in pediatric surgery.

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Research Committee, International Pediatric Endosurgery Group (IPEG), Los Angeles, CA, USA.



Live case demonstrations (LCDs) represent a common educational method throughout most surgical specialties. Concern has been raised about ethics and patient safety. The surgeon's elevated stress level, the need to comply with the meetings' time schedules, unfamiliar surgical equipment, and questionable indications resulted in prohibition of LCD in some surgical societies. We aimed to investigate the opinion of International Pediatric Endosurgery Group (IPEG) members on LCD.


An online-based survey in 2010-2011 requested all IPEG members to complete a questionnaire including data on personal background and statements on LCD. Participants had to indicate agreement with statements on a scale from 1 (do not agree) to 5 (fully agree).


Sixty-one surgeons and 148 attendees completed the questionnaire. Eighty-three percent of surgeons indicated elevated stress levels during LCD. Surgeons (3±1.2) and attendees (3±1.4) agreed that LCD may be harmful. Surgeons (2±1.2) and attendees (2±1.3) disagreed that LCD may be beneficial for patients. However, LCD was rated as educationally essential by surgeons (3±1.3) and attendees (3±1.3). Surgeons agreed (3±1.2) that educational benefits of LCD outweigh disadvantages for patients; attendees did not agree (2±1.3). Surgeons (4±1.4) and attendees (3±1.4) agreed that LCD should continue. Nevertheless, 36% of surgeons and 52% of attendees would not consent for LCD in their own child.


LCD is regarded an essential part of surgical education by IPEG members. However, it represents a controversial topic. The majority of IPEG members appear willing to continue LCD. If IPEG decides to go on with LCD, attention has to be drawn to patient safety and ethical considerations.

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