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Infect Agent Cancer. 2012 Jun 28;7(1):15. doi: 10.1186/1750-9378-7-15.

Treatment of Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Sorafenib in a HIV/HCV Co-Infected patient in HAART: A Case Report.

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Clinical Department of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Infectious Diseases IRCCS "L, Spallanzani", via Portuense 292, 00149, Rome, Italy.



Liver disease is the second cause of death among HIV patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Europe. HIV patients have a high prevalence of chronic HBV (6-10%) and HCV (33%) co-infection, and accelerated progression of viral hepatitis. Furthermore, the long duration of both HIV and HCV diseases in the HAART era increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.


We report the case of a 49 year -old HIV/HCV co-infected male patient who developed hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient underwent a partial hepatectomy, and a few months later was treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation due to hepatocarcinoma recurrence. Two months later, advanced hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed and sorafenib therapy was initiated. The patient achieved partial response of the main lesions, complete regression of the smallest lesions and did not experience clinical progression during the 20-month follow-up period. During therapy with sorafenib, the patient was treated with HAART with good viral and immunological responses. We used the therapeutic drug monitoring to assess antiretroviral concentrations during co-administration of sorafenib. Fosamprenavir Ctrough was found under the minimum level recommended by international guidelines. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. At month 20 of treatment, new liver lesions with portal vein thrombosis were diagnosed. After 28 months of sorafenib therapy, the patient deceased for severe liver insufficiency.


Sorafenib monotherapy demonstrated a marked delay in HCC disease progression in an HIV/HCV co-infected patient. Fosamprenavir Ctrough was found under the minimum level recommended by international guidelines, suggesting a possible interaction.

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