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Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Sep;12(9):696-702. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70133-0. Epub 2012 Jun 26.

Effectiveness of H1N1 vaccine for the prevention of pandemic influenza in Scotland, UK: a retrospective observational cohort study.

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Allergy and Respiratory Research Group, Centre for Population Health Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.



A targeted vaccination programme for pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza was introduced in Scotland, UK, in October, 2009. We sought to assess the effectiveness of this vaccine in a sample of the Scottish population during the 2009-10 pandemic.


We assessed the effectiveness of the Scottish pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza vaccination with a retrospective cohort design. We linked data of patient-level primary care, hospital records, death certification, and virological swabs to construct our cohort. We estimated vaccine effectiveness in a nationally representative sample of the Scottish population by establishing the risk of hospital admission and death (adjusted for potential confounders) resulting from influenza-related morbidity in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients and laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza H1N1 2009 in a subset of patients.


Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza vaccination began in week 43 of 2009 (Oct 21, 2009) and was given to 38,296 (15·5%, 95% CI 15·4-15·6) of 247,178 people by the end of the study period (Jan 31, 2010). 208,882 (85%) people were unvaccinated. There were 5207 emergency hospital admissions and 579 deaths in the unvaccinated population and 924 hospital admissions and 71 deaths in the vaccinated population during 23,893,359 person-days of observation. The effectiveness of H1N1 vaccination for prevention of emergency hospital admissions from influenza-related disorders was 19·5% (95% CI 0·8-34·7). The vaccine's effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza was 77·0% (95% CI 2·0-95·0).


Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza vaccination was associated with protection against pandemic influenza and a reduction in hospital admissions from influenza-related disorders in Scotland during the 2009-10 pandemic.


National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme (UK).

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