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Nat Rev Nephrol. 2012 Sep;8(9):533-41. doi: 10.1038/nrneph.2012.117. Epub 2012 Jun 26.

Influence of race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status on kidney disease.

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Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Emory Transplant Center, 101 Woodruff Circle, 5125 WMB, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.


Low socioeconomic status (SES) influences disease incidence and contributes to poor health outcomes throughout an individual's life course across a wide range of populations. Low SES is associated with increased incidence of chronic kidney disease, progression to end-stage renal disease, inadequate dialysis treatment, reduced access to kidney transplantation, and poor health outcomes. Similarly, racial and ethnic disparities, which in the USA are strongly associated with lower SES, are independently associated with poor health outcomes. In this Review, we discuss individual-level and group-level SES factors, and the concomitant role of race and ethnicity that are associated with and mediate the development of chronic kidney disease, progression to end-stage renal disease and access to treatment.

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