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Eur J Immunol. 2012 Sep;42(9):2363-73. doi: 10.1002/eji.201142306. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

The early cellular signatures of protective immunity induced by live viral vaccination.

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Charité University Medicine CCM, Klinik für Neurologie/NCRC, Berlin, Germany.


Here, we have used primary vaccination of healthy donors with attenuated live yellow fever virus 17D (YFV-17D) as a model to study the generation of protective immunity. In short intervals after vaccination, we analyzed the induction of YFV-17D specific T- and B-cell immunity, bystander activation, dendritic cell subsets, changes in serum cytokine levels, and YFV-17D-specific antibodies. We show activation of innate immunity and a concomitant decline of numbers of peripheral blood T and B cells. An early peak of antigen-specific T cells at day 2, followed by mobilization of innate immune cells, preceded the development of maximal adaptive immunity against YFV-17D at day 14 after vaccination. Interestingly, potent adaptive immunity as measured by high titers of neutralizing YFV-17D-specific antibodies, correlated with early activation and recruitment of YFV-17D-specific CD4(+) T cells and higher levels of sIL-6R. Thus our data might provide new insights into the interplay of innate and adaptive immunity for the induction of protective immunity.

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