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J Biol Inorg Chem. 2012 Oct;17(7):995-1007. doi: 10.1007/s00775-012-0914-z. Epub 2012 Jun 23.

Heme binding to the IsdE(M78A; H229A) double mutant: challenging unidirectional heme transfer in the iron-regulated surface determinant protein heme transfer pathway of Staphylococcus aureus.

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1
Department of Chemistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B7, Canada.

Abstract

The pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus has adopted specialized mechanisms for scavenging iron from its host. The cell-wall- and cell-membrane-associated iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins (IsdH, IsdB, IsdA, IsdC, IsdDEF, IsdG, and IsdI) allow S. aureus to scavenge iron from the heme in hemoglobin and haptoglobin-hemoglobin. Of these, IsdE chaperones heme to the ATP-binding-cassette-type transmembrane transporter (IsdF). IsdH, IsdB, IsdA, and IsdC contain at least one heme-binding near transporter (NEAT) domain. Previous studies have shown that ferric heme is transferred unidirectionally in the sequence IsdA-NEAT (Tyr-proximal amino acid) → IsdC-NEAT (Tyr) → IsdE (His). IsdA-NEAT does not transfer heme directly to IsdE. To challenge and probe this unusual unidirectional mechanism, the double mutant IsdE(M78A; H229A)-IsdE(MH)-was constructed and used in studies of heme transfer between IsdA-NEAT, IsdC-NEAT, and IsdE. This study probed the specific requirements in the heme binding site that enforce the unidirectional property of the system. Significantly, heme transfer from holo-IsdE(MH) to apo-IsdA-NEAT now occurs, breaking the established mechanism. The unique unidirectional heme-transfer properties now function under an affinity-driven mechanism. Overall, the heme proximal and distal ligands must play a crucial role controlling a gate that stops heme transfer between the native IsdE and IsdA-NEAT. We propose that these amino acids are the key control elements in the specific unidirectional protein-protein-gated release mechanism exhibited by the Isd system.

PMID:
22729839
DOI:
10.1007/s00775-012-0914-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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