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Nat Immunol. 2012 Jun 24;13(8):753-60. doi: 10.1038/ni.2360.

IL-34 is a tissue-restricted ligand of CSF1R required for the development of Langerhans cells and microglia.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Abstract

The differentiation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells into monocytes, tissue macrophages and some dendritic cell (DC) subtypes requires the growth factor CSF1 and its receptor, CSF1R. Langerhans cells (LCs) and microglia develop from embryonic myeloid precursor cells that populate the epidermis and central nervous system (CNS) before birth. Notably, LCs and microglia are present in CSF1-deficient mice but absent from CSF1R-deficient mice. Here we investigated whether an alternative CSF1R ligand, interleukin 34 (IL-34), is responsible for this discrepancy. Through the use of IL-34-deficient (Il34(LacZ/LacZ)) reporter mice, we found that keratinocytes and neurons were the main sources of IL-34. Il34(LacZ/LacZ) mice selectively lacked LCs and microglia and responded poorly to skin antigens and viral infection of the CNS. Thus, IL-34 specifically directs the differentiation of myeloid cells in the skin epidermis and CNS.

PMID:
22729249
PMCID:
PMC3941469
DOI:
10.1038/ni.2360
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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