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Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Aug 15;53(4):769-78. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.06.014. Epub 2012 Jun 19.

TG-interacting factor-induced superoxide production from NADPH oxidase contributes to the migration/invasion of urothelial carcinoma.

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Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan.


Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder is the fourth most common cancer and the ninth leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. However, higher recurrence, resistance to therapy, and poor diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers of UC prompt us to identify novel targets to improve the clinical applications. TG-interacting factor (TGIF), a transcriptional corepressor to modulate the TGF-β signaling, is associated with various types of human cancer. In the present study, we found that cellular migration activity, reactive oxygen species production, AKT(S473) phosphorylation, TGIF, and p67(phox) expression were higher in invasive T24 cells than in noninvasive RT4 cells. In addition, overexpression of TGIF in RT4 cells enhanced cellular migration/invasion ability; it involved NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)/p67(phox) complex activation, reactive oxygen species production, and AKT(S473) phosphorylation. In contrast, the migration/invasion ability of T24 cells was suppressed by the knockdown of TGIF or p67(phox), respectively. Overexpression of AKT1 could increase cellular superoxide production and invasion. Moreover, by using the PI3K/AKT inhibitor wortmannin or shRNA of AKT1, the TGIF-induced Nox activation and superoxide production were significantly inhibited. Accordingly, we suggest that PI3K/AKT signaling mediates TGIF-induced Nox2/p67(phox) complex activation and the resultant superoxide production which reinforces the PI3K/AKT signaling to promote the cellular migration/invasion ability of UC.

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