Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38379. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038379. Epub 2012 Jun 19.

The unstable CCTG repeat responsible for myotonic dystrophy type 2 originates from an AluSx element insertion into an early primate genome.

Author information

1
Division of Neurogenetics, Center for Neurological Diseases and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Abstract

Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a subtype of the myotonic dystrophies, caused by expansion of a tetranucleotide CCTG repeat in intron 1 of the zinc finger protein 9 (ZNF9) gene. The expansions are extremely unstable and variable, ranging from 75-11,000 CCTG repeats. This unprecedented repeat size and somatic heterogeneity make molecular diagnosis of DM2 difficult, and yield variable clinical phenotypes. To better understand the mutational origin and instability of the ZNF9 CCTG repeat, we analyzed the repeat configuration and flanking regions in 26 primate species. The 3'-end of an AluSx element, flanked by target site duplications (5'-ACTRCCAR-3'or 5'-ACTRCCARTTA-3'), followed the CCTG repeat, suggesting that the repeat was originally derived from the Alu element insertion. In addition, our results revealed lineage-specific repetitive motifs: pyrimidine (CT)-rich repeat motifs in New World monkeys, dinucleotide (TG) repeat motifs in Old World monkeys and gibbons, and dinucleotide (TG) and tetranucleotide (TCTG and/or CCTG) repeat motifs in great apes and humans. Moreover, these di- and tetra-nucleotide repeat motifs arose from the poly (A) tail of the AluSx element, and evolved into unstable CCTG repeats during primate evolution. Alu elements are known to be the source of microsatellite repeats responsible for two other repeat expansion disorders: Friedreich ataxia and spinocerebellar ataxia type 10. Taken together, these findings raise questions as to the mechanism(s) by which Alu-mediated repeats developed into the large, extremely unstable expansions common to these three disorders.

PMID:
22723857
PMCID:
PMC3378579
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0038379
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center