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JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2012 Jun;5(6):606-17. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2012.03.016.

A global risk approach to identify patients with left main or 3-vessel disease who could safely and efficaciously be treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: the SYNTAX Trial at 3 years.

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Department of Interventional Cardiology, Erasmus University, Medical Centre, Thoraxcenter, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.



The aim of this study was to assess the additional value of the Global Risk--a combination of the SYNTAX Score (SXscore) and additive EuroSCORE--in the identification of a low-risk population, who could safely and efficaciously be treated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).


PCI is increasingly acceptable in appropriately selected patients with left main stem or 3-vessel coronary artery disease.


Within the SYNTAX Trial (Synergy between PCI with TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery Trial), all-cause death and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were analyzed at 36 months in low (GRC(LOW)) to high Global Risk groups, with Kaplan-Meier, log-rank, and Cox regression analyses.


Within the randomized left main stem population (n = 701), comparisons between GRC(LOW) groups demonstrated a significantly lower mortality with PCI compared with CABG (CABG: 7.5%, PCI: 1.2%, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03 to 0.70, p = 0.0054) and a trend toward reduced MACCE (CABG: 23.1%, PCI: 15.8%, HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.07, p = 0.088). Similar analyses within the randomized 3-vessel disease population (n = 1,088) demonstrated no statistically significant differences in mortality (CABG: 5.2%, PCI: 5.8%, HR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.57 to 2.30, p = 0.71) or MACCE (CABG: 19.0%, PCI: 24.7%, HR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.92, p = 0.10). Risk-model performance and reclassification analyses demonstrated that the EuroSCORE-with the added incremental benefit of the SXscore to form the Global Risk-enhanced the risk stratification of all PCI patients.


In comparison with the SXscore, the Global Risk, with a simple treatment algorithm, substantially enhances the identification of low-risk patients who could safely and efficaciously be treated with CABG or PCI.


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