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Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2012 Jul;42(4):669-92, vi. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2012.04.008. Epub 2012 May 19.

Chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats.

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Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996-4544, USA.


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs commonly in older dogs and cats. Advances in diagnostics, staging, and treatment are associated with increased quality and quantity of life. Dietary modification has been shown to increase survival and quality of life and involves more than protein restriction as diets modified for use with CKD are lower in phosphorous and sodium, potassium and B-vitamin replete, and alkalinizing, and they contain n3-fatty acids. Additionally, recognition and management of CKD-associated diseases such as systemic arterial hypertension, proteinuria, and anemia benefit patients. This article summarizes staging and management of CKD in dogs and cats.

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