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Front Plant Sci. 2012 Jun 18;3:126. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00126. eCollection 2012.

Translocation of phospholipase A2α to apoplasts is modulated by developmental stages and bacterial infection in Arabidopsis.

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Environmental Biotechnology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon, Korea.


Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) hydrolyzes phospholipids at the sn-2 position to yield lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. Of the four paralogs expressed in Arabidopsis, the cellular functions of PLA(2)α in planta are poorly understood. The present study shows that PLA(2)α possesses unique characteristics in terms of spatiotemporal subcellular localization, as compared with the other paralogs that remain in the ER and/or Golgi apparatus during secretory processes. Only PLA(2)α is secreted out to extracellular spaces, and its secretion to apoplasts is modulated according to the developmental stages of plant tissues. Observation of PLA(2)α-RFP transgenic plants suggests that PLA(2)α localizes mostly at the Golgi bodies in actively growing leaf tissues, but is gradually translocated to apoplasts as the leaves become mature. When Pseudomonas syringae pv.~tomato DC3000 carrying the avirulent factor avrRpm1 infects the apoplasts of host plants, PLA(2)α rapidly translocates to the apoplasts where bacteria attempt to become established. PLA(2)α promoter::GUS assays show that PLA(2)α gene expression is controlled in a developmental stage- and tissue-specific manner. It would be interesting to investigate if PLA(2)α functions in plant defense responses at apoplasts where secreted PLA(2)α confronts with invading pathogens.


apoplast; bacterial infection; phospholipase A2; subcellular localization; translocation

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