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PLoS Pathog. 2012;8(6):e1002676. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002676. Epub 2012 Jun 14.

Manipulation of costimulatory molecules by intracellular pathogens: veni, vidi, vici!!

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1
CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India.

Abstract

Some of the most successful pathogens of human, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), HIV, and Leishmania donovani not only establish chronic infections but also remain a grave global threat. These pathogens have developed innovative strategies to evade immune responses such as antigenic shift and drift, interference with antigen processing/presentation, subversion of phagocytosis, induction of immune regulatory pathways, and manipulation of the costimulatory molecules. Costimulatory molecules expressed on the surface of various cells play a decisive role in the initiation and sustenance of immunity. Exploitation of the "code of conduct" of costimulation pathways provides evolutionary incentive to the pathogens and thereby abates the functioning of the immune system. Here we review how Mtb, HIV, Leishmania sp., and other pathogens manipulate costimulatory molecules to establish chronic infection. Impairment by pathogens in the signaling events delivered by costimulatory molecules may be responsible for defective T-cell responses; consequently organisms grow unhindered in the host cells. This review summarizes the convergent devices that pathogens employ to tune and tame the immune system using costimulatory molecules. Studying host-pathogen interaction in context with costimulatory signals may unveil the molecular mechanism that will help in understanding the survival/death of the pathogens. We emphasize that the very same pathways can potentially be exploited to develop immunotherapeutic strategies to eliminate intracellular pathogens.

PMID:
22719245
PMCID:
PMC3375268
DOI:
10.1371/journal.ppat.1002676
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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