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Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2014 Jun;21(6):719-26. doi: 10.1177/2047487312452501. Epub 2012 Jun 20.

The association between resting heart rate, cardiovascular disease and mortality: evidence from 112,680 men and women in 12 cohorts.

Author information

1
The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, Australia Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA markw@georgeinstitute.org.au.
2
The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, Australia.
3
The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, Australia Shiga University of Medical Science, Japan.
4
School of Public Health, University of Hong Kong, China.
5
Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
6
Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Korea.
7
The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, Australia Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, UK.
8
The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, Australia Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Minnesota, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Multiple studies have examined the relationship between heart rate and mortality; however, there are discrepancies in results. Our aim was to describe the relationship between resting heart rate (RHR) and both major cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, as well as all-cause mortality in the Asia-Pacific region.

DESIGN AND METHODS:

Individual data from 112,680 subjects in 12 cohort studies were pooled and analysed using Cox models, stratified by study and sex, and adjusted for age and systolic blood pressure.

RESULTS:

During a mean 7.4 years follow-up, 6086 deaths and 2726 fatal or nonfatal CV events were recorded. There was a continuous, increasing association between having a RHR above approximately 65 beats/min and the risk of both CV and all-cause mortality, yet there was no evidence of associations below this threshold. The hazard ratio (95% CI) comparing the extreme quarters of RHR (80+ v <65 beats/min) was 1.44 (1.29-1.60) for CV and 1.54 (1.43-1.66) for total mortality. These associations were not materially changed by adjustment for other risk factors and exclusion of the first 2 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios of a similar magnitude were found for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, but the hazard ratio for heart failure was higher (2.08, 95% CI 1.07-4.06) and for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) was lower (1.11, 95% CI 0.93-1.31) than for stroke.

CONCLUSIONS:

RHR of above 65 beats/min has a strong independent effect on premature mortality and stroke, but a lesser effect on CHD. Lifestyle and pharmaceutical regimens to reduce RHR may be beneficial for people with moderate to high levels of RHR.

KEYWORDS:

Asia; Australia; Resting heart rate; cardiovascular disease; coronary heart disease; heart failure; mortality; myocardial infarction; stroke

PMID:
22718796
DOI:
10.1177/2047487312452501
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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