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Clin Exp Dermatol. 2012 Jul;37(5):509-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2230.2011.04270.x.

Congenital papulonodular eruption: presenting sign of congenital leukaemia cutis.

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As'ad Al-Hamad Dermatology Center, Al-Sabah Hospital, Kuwait.


Congenital leukaemia (CL) is a rare malignancy that accounts for < 1% of cases of childhood leukaemias. Leukaemia cutis (LC) refers to cutaneous infiltration with leukaemic cells, and is seen in 30-50% of CL cases. It may precede, follow or occur simultaneously with leukaemia. If left untreated, the prognosis is usually poor, but early diagnosis and treatment may result in a favourable prognosis. We report a case of congenital leukaemia cutis with a progressive, violaceous papulonodular eruption (a 'blueberry muffin' rash), which had been noted at birth, as a presenting sign of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), which on investigation was classified as AML, FAB M2 type with a t(8; 21)(p11;q22) chromosomal defect. The patient had a favourable response to AML chemotherapy.

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