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Clin Exp Dermatol. 2012 Jul;37(5):492-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2230.2012.04386.x.

Factors influencing skin ageing in a Mediterranean population from Turkey.

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Department of Dermatology, Ankara Etlik Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.



Skin ageing is a continuous process, with intrinsic factors determining which extrinsic factors (chronic sun exposure and other environmental factors, particularly smoking) have the greatest effect.


To investigate the effects of lifestyle and environmental factors on skin ageing in a Mediterranean population from Ankara, Turkey.


In total, 574 (337 women, 237 men; age range 18-89 years) were enrolled into the study. Data were collected on age, gender, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), skin phototype, smoking status, consumption of alcohol (> 3 units/week) and coffee (> 1 cup/day), sun exposure, use of sunscreen and sunglasses, and involvement in sports and physical activities. The Daniell skin-wrinkling grading system was used as a marker of skin ageing.


We found that male gender, chronic sun exposure and number of pack-years of cigarette smoking significantly contributed to the formation of facial wrinkles. There was a negative correlation between facial wrinkling and the use of sunscreen and sunglasses and facial wrinkling (P < 0.001 for both). We did not find any significant association between wrinkling score and alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, sports participation or d skin phototype. Moreover, wrinkling score was significantly higher in patients with a BMI < 25 kg/m(2) than in patients with a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) (P < 0.018). Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted after adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, skin phototype, sun exposure, and use of sunglasses and topical sun protection. We found that gender and age were significantly associated with skin ageing (P < 0.014 and < 0.001, respectively).


In this study, older age, male gender, low BMI, smoking and chronic sun exposure had a negative influence on skin ageing in a Turkish population.

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