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Pediatrics. 2012 Jul;130(1):e46-52. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3620. Epub 2012 Jun 18.

Trends in Candida central line-associated bloodstream infections among NICUs, 1999-2009.

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  • 1Surveillance Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.



To assess trends in incidence of Candida spp. central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in US NICUs, 1999-2009.


Data from NICUs participating in the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (1999-2004) and National Healthcare Safety Network (2006-2009) were analyzed. Overall and birth weight-specific incidence rates of Candida spp. CLABSIs per 1000 central line-days were calculated. Trends in incidence were assessed by using Poisson regression, and trends in proportion of CLABSIs identified as Candida albicans were assessed by using weighted-linear regression.


Overall, 398 NICUs reported 1407 Candida spp. CLABSIs (706 due to C albicans) among 1400 neonates. Of the 1400 neonates, 963 (69%) were ≤ 1000 g at the time of birth, and 182 (13%) died. From 1999 to 2009, the overall incidence decreased significantly for CLABSIs due to Candida spp. (0.92 vs 0.2), C albicans (0.53 vs 0.09), and non-albicans Candida spp. (0.39 vs 0.1). Birth weight-specific incidence significantly decreased across all birth weight categories for C albicans. For CLABSIs due to non-albicans Candida spp., significant decreases were detected among all birth weight categories, except among neonates 1501 to 2500 g. The proportion of Candida spp. CLABSIs due to C albicans did not significantly change over time, remaining at ~50%.


Incidence of Candida spp. CLABSIs decreased substantially among NICU patients, regardless of birth weight. Decreases in incidence across all birth weight categories, and not only among neonates ≤ 1000 g in whom antifungal prophylaxis may be more common, suggest that multiple factors contributed to the declining incidence.

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