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Clin Immunol. 2012 Aug;144(2):98-108. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2012.05.006. Epub 2012 May 24.

Intranasal vaccination with an adjuvanted Norwalk virus-like particle vaccine elicits antigen-specific B memory responses in human adult volunteers.

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Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.


Noroviruses are the most frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans of all ages. No vaccines are currently available. An intranasally delivered Norwalk (NV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine was recently shown to be well tolerated, immunogenic and to protect against infection in Phase 1 studies. Here, we examined B memory (B(M)) responses in volunteers who received the highest dosage levels of the NV-VLP vaccine (50 μg and 100 μg). We measured the frequency of NV-specific IgG and IgA-secreting B(M) cells in peripheral blood and the level of antibodies produced by these cells in culture. All subjects immunized with 100 μg of the NV-VLP vaccine and 90% of those who received 50 μg had significant IgA or IgG B(M) responses. The B(M) cell frequencies correlated with serum antibody levels and mucosally-primed antibody-secreting cell responses. This is the first demonstration of dose-dependent, functional B(M) responses in humans immunized intranasally with a NV-VLP vaccine.

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