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Mar Environ Res. 2012 Aug;79:63-9. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2012.05.004. Epub 2012 May 29.

Hydroxybenzoate paralytic shellfish toxins induce transient GST activity depletion and chromosomal damage in white seabream (Diplodus sargus).

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IPIMAR - National Institute for Biological Resources (INRB/IPIMAR), Av. Brasília, 1449-006 Lisboa, Portugal.


Fish are routinely exposed to harmful algal blooms that produce noxious compounds and impact the marine food web. This study investigates the role of phase I and II detoxification enzymes on metabolism of the novel paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), the hydroxybenzoate analogues recently discovered in Gymnodinium catenatum strains, in the liver of white seabream, assessing ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Additionally, the genotoxic potential of hydroxybenzoate PSTs was examined through the erythrocytic nuclear abnormality (ENA) assay. Fish were injected with hydroxybenzoate PSTs into the coelomic cavity and sacrificed 2 and 6 days later for biochemical and cytogenetic analyses. While the activity of EROD was unresponsive to toxins, a significant GST activity decrease was observed at 2 days after injection indicating an impairment of this line of the detoxification system. The genotoxic potential of PSTs was demonstrated by the induction of clastogenic/aneugenic effects at 2 days, as measured by the ENA assay. Overall, this study contributes to better understand the impact of toxins produced by G. catenatum blooms in fish, revealing effects that, even transitory, point out a risk associated to hydroxybenzoate analogues.

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