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Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2012 Sep;9(3):187-99. doi: 10.1007/s11904-012-0125-9.

Renal dysfunction in the setting of HIV/AIDS.

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Infectious Diseases Service, Hospital Clinic-IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.


Antiretroviral therapy has been immensely successful in reducing the incidence of opportunistic infections and death after HIV infection. This has resulted in heightened interest in noninfectious comorbidities including kidney disease. Although HIV-associated nephropathy, the most ominous kidney disease related to the direct effects of HIV, may be prevented and treated with antiretrovirals, kidney disease remains an important issue in this population. In addition to the common risk factors for kidney disease of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, HIV-infected individuals have a high prevalence of other risk factors, including hepatitis C and exposure to antiretrovirals and other medications. Therefore, the differential diagnosis is vast. Early identification (through efficient screening) and prompt treatment of kidney disease in HIV-infected individuals are critical to lead to better outcomes. This review focuses on clinical and epidemiological issues, treatment strategies (including dialysis and kidney transplantation), and recent advances among kidney disease in the HIV population.

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