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Tob Control. 2013 Nov;22(6):e9. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050194. Epub 2012 Jun 16.

The Gold Standard Programme: smoking cessation interventions for disadvantaged smokers are effective in a real-life setting.

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1
WHO CC, Clinical Health Promotion Centre, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.

DESIGN:

Observational prospective cohort study.

SETTING:

GSPs in pharmacies, hospitals and communities in Denmark, reporting to the national Smoking Cessation Database.

PARTICIPANTS:

Disadvantaged patients, defined as patients with a lower level of education and those receiving unemployment benefits.

INTERVENTIONS:

6-week manualised GSP smoking cessation interventions performed by certified staff.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

6 months of continuous abstinence, response rate: 80%.

RESULTS:

Continuous abstinence of the 16 377 responders was 34% (of all 20 588 smokers: 27%). Continuous abstinence was lower in 5738 smokers with a lower educational level (30% of responders and 23% of all) and in 840 unemployed (27% of responders and 19% of all). In respect to modifiable factors, continuous abstinence was found more often after programmes in one-on-one formats (vs group formats) among patients with a lower educational level, 34% (vs 25%, p=0.037), or among unemployed, 35% (vs 24%, p=0.099). The variable 'format' stayed in the final model of multivariable analyses in patients with a lower educational level, OR=1.31 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.63).

CONCLUSIONS:

Although continuous abstinence was lower among disadvantaged smokers, the absolute difference was small. If the programme had been as effective in disadvantaged as in non-disadvantaged groups, there would have been an extra 46 or 8 quitters annually, respectively. Promoting individual interventions among those with a low education may increase the effectiveness of GSP.

KEYWORDS:

Smoking; health disparities; health inequalities; nationwide database; smoking cessation intervention

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