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Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Jul 15;22(14):4707-12. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.05.077. Epub 2012 May 26.

Development and evaluation of multifunctional agents for potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease: application to a pyrimidine-2,4-diamine template.

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School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences Campus, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1.


We investigated a group of 2-benzylpiperidin-N-benzylpyrimidin-4-amines with various electron-withdrawing or electron-donating groups (EWGs or EDGs, respectively) as multi-targeted Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics. The synthesized derivatives were screened for anti-cholinesterase (AChE and BuChE), anti-Aβ-aggregation (AChE- and self-induced) and anti-β-secretase (BACE-1) activities in an effort to identify lead, multifunctional candidates as part of our multi-targeted approach to treat AD. Biological assessment revealed that the nature of the substituent on the C-4 benzylamine group (e.g., halogen vs methoxy-based) greatly affected the biological profile. In vitro screening identified N(2)-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-N(4)-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (7h) as the lead candidate with a dual ChE (AChE IC(50)=9.9 μM; BuChE IC(50)=11.4 μM), Aβ-aggregation (AChE-induced=59.3%; self-induced=17.4% at 100 μM) and BACE-1 (34% inhibition at 10 μM) inhibitory profile along with good cell viability (% neuroblastoma cell viability at 40 μM=81.0%). Molecular modeling studies indicate that a central pyrimidine-2,4-diamine ring serves as a suitable template to develop novel small molecule candidates to target multiple pathological routes in AD.

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