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Indian J Anaesth. 2012 Mar;56(2):145-50.

Intravenous infusion of ketamine-propofol can be an alternative to intravenous infusion of fentanyl-propofol for deep sedation and analgesia in paediatric patients undergoing emergency short surgical procedures.

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1
Department of Anaesthesiology, North Bengal Medical College, P.O. Sushrutanagar, Darjeeling, West Bengal, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Paediatric patients often present with different painful conditions that require immediate surgical interventions. Despite a plethora of articles on the ketamine-propofol combination, comprehensive evidence regarding the suitable sedoanalgesia regime is lacking due to heterogeneity in study designs.

METHODS:

This prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial was conducted in 100 children, of age 3-14 years, American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status IE-IIE, posted for emergency short surgical procedures. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2 mL of normal saline (pre-induction) plus calculated volume of drug from the 11 mL of ketamine-propofol solution for induction (group PK, n=50) or fentanyl 1.5 μg/kg diluted to 2 mL with normal saline (pre-induction) plus calculated volume of drug from the 11 mL of propofol solution for induction (group PF, n=50). In both the groups, the initial bolus propofol 1 mg/kg i.v. (assuming the syringes contained only propofol, for simplicity) was followed by adjusted infusion to achieve a Ramsay Sedation Scale score of six. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was the primary outcome measurement.

RESULTS:

Data from 48 patients in group PK and 44 patients in group PF were available for analysis. Hypotension was found in seven patients (14.6%) in group PK compared with 17 (38.6%) patients in group PF (P=0.009). Intraoperative MAP was significantly lower in group PF than group PK when compared with baseline.

CONCLUSION:

The combination of low-dose ketamine and propofol is more effective and a safer sedoanalgesia regimen than the propofol-fentanyl combination in paediatric emergency short surgical procedures in terms of haemodynamic stability and lesser incidence of apnoea.

KEYWORDS:

Drug combinations; fentanyl; ketamine; paediatric emergency; procedural sedation; propofol

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