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J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2014 Mar;8(3):226-32. doi: 10.1002/term.1516. Epub 2012 Jun 15.

Osteogenic differentiated periodontal ligament stem cells maintain their immunomodulatory capacity.

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Department of Stomatology, Yidu Central Hospital, Weifang Medical University, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.


Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) have great potential for regenerating periodontal ligament tissue, which is involved in attaching teeth to the underlying alveolar bone. Recently, PDLSCs were characterized as having both low immunogenicity and profound immunomodulation abilities. Further, transplanted PDLSCs differentiate into osteoblasts in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the immunological characteristics of osteogenic differentiated PDLSCs. We found that PDLSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cells markers, including STRO-1 and CD146, but were negative for CD14, CD34 and CD45. RT-PCR indicated that NCAM1, MSX1 and S100A4 were expressed in PDLSCs. The cells underwent osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation when cultured in defined medium. Osteogenic differentiated PDLSCs failed to stimulate allogeneic T cell proliferation and suppressed phytohaemagglutinin-triggered T cell proliferation. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, restored the T cell proliferation inhibited by osteogenic differentiated PDLSCs. These data confirm that osteogenic differentiated PDLSCs have low immunogenicity and demonstrate that they suppress T cell proliferation in vitro through secretion of PGE2.


immunogenicity; immunosuppression; osteogenic differentiation; periodontal ligament stem cells; regenerative medicine; tissue engineering

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