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J Electrocardiol. 2012 Nov-Dec;45(6):723-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2012.05.003. Epub 2012 Jun 12.

Analysis of atrial fibrillatory rate during spontaneous episodes of atrial fibrillation in humans using implantable loop recorder electrocardiogram.

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Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.


Atrial fibrillatory rate (AFR) can predict outcome of interventions for atrial fibrillation (AF); however, AFR behavior at AF onset in humans is poorly described. We studied AFR during spontaneous AF episodes in patients with lone paroxysmal AF who received implantable loop recorders and had AF episodes of 1 hour or more recorded (n = 4). Mean AFR per minute was assessed from continuous implantable loop recorder electrocardiogram using spatiotemporal QRST cancellation and time-frequency analysis. Atrial fibrillatory rate increased from 290 ± 20 to 326 ± 39 fibrillations per minute during the first 3 hours (P<.05) and reached plateau then. Atrial fibrillatory rate beyond the initial 3 hours can, therefore, be considered stable and may be evaluated for prediction of intervention effect.

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