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J Comput Biol. 2012 Jun;19(6):632-49. doi: 10.1089/cmb.2012.0042.

Improvements to a class of distance matrix methods for inferring species trees from gene trees.

Author information

1
Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. helmkamp@umich.edu

Abstract

Among the methods currently available for inferring species trees from gene trees, the GLASS method of Mossel and Roch (2010), the Shallowest Divergence (SD) method of Maddison and Knowles (2006), the STEAC method of Liu et al. (2009), and a related method that we call Minimum Average Coalescence (MAC) are computationally efficient and provide branch length estimates. Further, GLASS and STEAC have been shown to be consistent estimators of tree topology under a multispecies coalescent model. However, divergence time estimates obtained with these methods are all systematically biased under the model because the pairwise interspecific gene divergence times on which they rely must be more ancient than the species divergence time. Jewett and Rosenberg (2012) derived an expression for the bias of GLASS and used it to propose an improved method that they termed iGLASS. Here, we derive the biases of SD, STEAC, and MAC, and we propose improved analogues of these methods that we call iSD, iSTEAC, and iMAC. We conduct simulations to compare the performance of these methods with their original counterparts and with GLASS and iGLASS, finding that each of them decreases the bias and mean squared error of pairwise divergence time estimates. The new methods can therefore contribute to improvements in the estimation of species trees from information on gene trees.

PMID:
22697239
PMCID:
PMC3400268
DOI:
10.1089/cmb.2012.0042
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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