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AIDS. 2012 Sep 10;26(14):1775-9. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328356467a.

Bilateral oblique facial clefts and extremity anomaly in an infant after intrauterine efavirenz exposure and review of its teratogenic risk.

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Center for Craniofacial Disorders, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.



Congenital anomalies may be caused by genetic or environmental factors or a combination of both. Oblique facial clefts are very rare congenital deformities. The occurrence of facial clefts and an extremity anomaly suggests a common underlying cause. Lateral oro-ocular clefts do not occur along normal developmental planes and may be part of the amnion disruption complex sequence. Our objective was to report a case of this very event, which also followed an unusual intrauterine exposure and review the literature on the teratogenic risk of efavirenz.


We report a case of amniotic rupture sequence after fetal HIV and antiretroviral exposure.


Teratogenic exposure has been rarely reported and never after antiretroviral exposure.


By reporting and registering more cases, we will be able to better assess the risks such medications pose to the developing fetus. The publication of a single case report has the potential to contribute to our knowledge of the significance of prenatal exposure to antiretrovirals and other medications for common HIV-associated disorders. It also generates a hypothesis that can be tested with further clinical data, animal models and epidemiologic studies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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