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J Appl Biomech. 2012 Nov;28(5):511-9. Epub 2012 May 8.

The effects of orthotic heel lifts on Achilles tendon force and strain during running.

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1
University of Bath, Bath, UK.

Abstract

This study assessed the effects of orthotic heel lifts on Achilles tendon (AT) force and strain during running. Ten females ran barefoot over a force plate in three conditions: no heel lifts (NHL), with 12 mm heel lifts (12HL) and with 18 mm heel lifts (18HL). Kinematics for the right lower limb were collected (200 Hz). AT force was calculated from inverse dynamics. AT strain was determined from kinematics and ultrasound images of medial gastrocnemius (50 Hz). Peak AT strain was less for 18HL (5.5 ± 4.4%) than for NHL (7.4 ± 4.2%) (p = .029, effect size [ES] = 0.44) but not for 12HL (5.8 ± 4.8%) versus NHL (ES = 0.35). Peak AT force was significantly (p = .024, ES = 0.42) less for 18HL (2382 ± 717 N) than for NHL (2710 ± 830 N) but not for 12HL (2538 ± 823 N, ES = 0.21). The 18HL reduced ankle dorsiflexion but not flexion-extension ankle moments and increased the AT moment arm compared with NHL. Thus, 18HL reduced force and strain on the AT during running via a reduction in dorsiflexion, which lengthened the AT moment arm. Therefore, heel lifts could be used to reduce AT loading and strain during the rehabilitation of AT injuries.

PMID:
22695168
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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