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Postgrad Med. 2012 May;124(3):28-36. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2012.05.2545.

Diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer: how can we improve?

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James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.


The majority of patients with bladder cancer will be diagnosed following an episode of hematuria. With few exceptions, these patients should be referred for a complete urologic evaluation, including a history and physical examination, flexible cystoscopy, imaging of the upper urinary tract, and optional urine cytology. Those found to have a bladder tumor should undergo transurethral resection for the combined purposes of initial staging and treatment. Delays in diagnosing invasive bladder cancer are associated with adverse outcomes. In this review, we cover the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. In addition, we discuss ways to improve outcomes through increased public awareness, improvements in tumor detection, accurate staging, and regimented patient surveillance.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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