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Pediatrics. 2012 Jul;130(1):e115-25. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3693. Epub 2012 Jun 11.

Outcome trajectories in extremely preterm infants.

Collaborators (216)

Laptook, Oh, Cashore, Gargus, Moore, Stephens, Walden, Alksninis B, Hensman A, Andrews D, Angela K, Lainwala, Leach T, Leonard M, Noel L, Watson VE, Fanaroff, Wilson-Costello, Newman N, Friedman H, Siner B, Schibler, Donovan, Bridges, Steichen, Yolton, Alexander B, Gratton T, Grisby C, Hessling J, Mincey H, Mersmann MW, Goldberg, Cotten, Goldstein, Auten K, Gustafson, Lohmeyer M, Jain, Adams-Chapman, Blackwelder A, Carter, Hale E, LaRossa MM, Smikle G, Higgins, Wright, McClure E, Poindexter, Lemons, Dusick, Appel D, Bohnke L, Bull, Cook A, Eaken, Herron D, Kardatzke, Lytle, Miller L, Minnich, Richard L, Wilson L, Das, Poole, Hastings B, McClure E, Newman, Auman JO, Huitema CP, Schaefer S, Zaterka-Baxter K, Stevenson, Adams, Ahlfors, Fleisher, Hintz, Ball M, Baran, Bentley, Bond, Brudos, DeAnda, DeBattista A, Epcar J, Hajdena-Dawson, Kohn, Kuelper, Lee-Ancajas, Pyle, St John, Stebbins, Bailey, Biasini, Collins M, Chopko, Cosby S, Moses MB, Nelson, Peralta-Carcelen, Phillips V, Preskitt J, Rector, Whitley S, Finer, Wozniak, Rasmussen, Vaucher, Fuller M, Arnell K, Barbieri-Welge R, Ben-Tall A, Bridge R, Demetrio C, Henderson C, Ito E, Lukasik M, Pontillo D, Posin D, Rich W, Runyan C, Wilkes J, Bauer, Duara, Calejo M, Diaz A, Everett-Thomas R, Eguaras SF, Gideon Y, Hiriart-Fajardo, Worth AM, Stroerger A, Papile, Lacy CB, Laadt, Long D, Lowe, Montman R, Strong, Phelps, Myers, Reubens L, Johnson JB, Burnell E, Hust D, Jensen R, Kushner E, Merzbach J, Rowan M, Yost, Zwetsch L, Korones, Bada, Hudson T, Williams M, Yolton, Sánchez, Rosenfeld, Salhab, Broyles, Heyne, Adams S, Dooley, Guzman A, Hensley G, Hickman J, Heyne, Lupino C, Madden L, Madison S, Miller N, Morgan J, Boatman CT, Johnson LB, Kennedy, Evans, Jiminez, Morris, Siddiki, Akpa E, Alaniz N, Dieterich, Lis A, McDavid G, Poundstone M, Simmons M, Tate PP, Reddoch S, Wright S, O'Shea, Dillard, Washburn, Welch, Allred DE, Goldstein, Jackson B, Peters N, Peterson C, Waldrep E, Morris MW, Hounshell, Delaney-Black, Johnson, Pappas, Bara R, Muran G, Kennedy D, Driscoll D, Goldston L, Ehrenkranz, Gettner P, Konstantino M, Poulsen J, Romano E, Taft J, Williams J.



Methods are required to predict prognosis with changes in clinical course. Death or neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely premature neonates can be predicted at birth/admission to the ICU by considering gender, antenatal steroids, multiple birth, birth weight, and gestational age. Predictions may be improved by using additional information available later during the clinical course. Our objective was to develop serial predictions of outcome by using prognostic factors available over the course of NICU hospitalization.


Data on infants with birth weight ≤ 1.0 kg admitted to 18 large academic tertiary NICUs during 1998-2005 were used to develop multivariable regression models following stepwise variable selection. Models were developed by using all survivors at specific times during hospitalization (in delivery room [n = 8713], 7-day [n = 6996], 28-day [n = 6241], and 36-week postmenstrual age [n = 5118]) to predict death or death/neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months.


Prediction of death or neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely premature infants is improved by using information available later during the clinical course. The importance of birth weight declines, whereas the importance of respiratory illness severity increases with advancing postnatal age. The c-statistic in validation models ranged from 0.74 to 0.80 with misclassification rates ranging from 0.28 to 0.30.


Dynamic models of the changing probability of individual outcome can improve outcome predictions in preterm infants. Various current and future scenarios can be modeled by input of different clinical possibilities to develop individual "outcome trajectories" and evaluate impact of possible morbidities on outcome.

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