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J Pharm Pract. 2012 Aug;25(4):417-27. doi: 10.1177/0897190012448309. Epub 2012 Jun 11.

Clinical application of pharmacogenomics.

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Skaggs School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.


The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical application of pharmacogenomics for select drug therapies (eg, proton pump inhibitors [PPIs], codeine, and carbamazepine) and to highlight limitations and challenges that preclude implementation of pharmacogenomics into clinical practice. Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and the presence of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*1502 allele influence drug disposition and/or response. A portion of PPI pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability can be explained by CYP2C19 genotype. However, conflicting evidence exists related to Helicobacter pylori cure rates based on CYP2C19 genotype. For codeine, adverse drug reactions in neonates through breast-feeding from CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers have been reported. However, there is lack of conclusive evidence regarding the overall influence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on codeine efficacy and toxicity. Although CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genotyping tests are available, clinical utility remains low. The presence of the HLA-B*1502 allele is associated with carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and/or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Pharmacogenomic testing is required prior to initiating carbamazepine in high-risk patients. Lack of sufficient resources, provider knowledge, and ethical, legal, and social issues are several limitations and challenges to implementing pharmacogenomic testing in clinical practice.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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