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PPAR Res. 2012;2012:483656. doi: 10.1155/2012/483656. Epub 2012 May 21.

Effects of PPARγ Ligands on Leukemia.

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Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and retinoic acid receptors (RARs), members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are transcription factors that regulate a variety of important cellular functions. PPARs form heterodimers retinoid X receptor (RXR), an obligate heterodimeric partner for other nuclear receptors. Several novel links between retinoid metabolism and PPAR responses have been identified, and activation of PPAR/RXR expression has been shown to increase response to retinoids. PPARγ has emerged as a key regulator of cell growth and survival, whose activity is modulated by a number of synthetic and natural ligands. While clinical trials in cancer patients with thiazolidinediones (TZD) have been disappointing, novel structurally different PPARγ ligands, including triterpenoids, have entered clinical arena as therapeutic agents for epithelial and hematopoietic malignancies. Here we shall review the antitumor advances of PPARγ, alone and in combination with RARα ligands in control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and their potential therapeutic applications in hematological malignancies.

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