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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Aug;97(8):2818-26. doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-1205. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

Mechanisms for the antihyperglycemic effect of sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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1
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa School of Medicine, 56100 Pisa, Italy.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms (incretin effect, β-cell function, endogenous glucose production) are not well known.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of the study was to examine mechanisms of the antihyperglycemic effect of DPP-4 inhibitors.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS:

We administered a mixed meal with glucose tracers ([6,6-(2)H(2)]-glucose infused, [1-(2)H]-glucose ingested), and on a separate day, a glucose infusion matched the glucose responses to the meal (isoglycemic test) in 50 type 2 diabetes patients (hemoglobin A(1c) = 7.4 ± 0.8%) and seven controls; 47 diabetic completers were restudied after 6 wk. Glucose fluxes were calculated, and β-cell function was assessed by mathematical modeling. The incretin effect was calculated as the ratio of oral to iv insulin secretion.

INTERVENTION:

We conducted a 6-wk, double-blind, randomized treatment with sitagliptin (100 mg/d; n = 25) or placebo (n = 22).

RESULTS:

Relative to placebo, meal-induced changes in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve (AUC) were greater with sitagliptin, in parallel with a lower appearance of oral glucose [difference (post-pre) AUC = -353 ± 915 vs. +146 ± 601 μmol · kg(-1) · 5 h] and greater suppression of endogenous glucose production. Insulin sensitivity improved 10%, whereas total insulin secretion was unchanged. During the meal, β-cell glucose sensitivity improved (+19[29] vs. 5[21] pmol · min(-1) · m(-2) · mm(-1); median [interquartile range]) and glucagon AUC decreased (19.6 ± 7.5 to 17.3 ± 7.1 ng · ml(-1) · 5 h), whereas intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 AUC increased with sitagliptin vs. placebo. The incretin effect was unchanged because sitagliptin increased β-cell glucose sensitivity also during the isoglycemic test.

CONCLUSIONS:

Chronic sitagliptin treatment improves glycemic control by lowering the appearance of oral glucose, postprandial endogenous glucose release, and glucagon response, and by improving insulin sensitivity and β-cell glucose sensing in response to both oral and iv glucose.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00704132.

Comment in

PMID:
22685234
DOI:
10.1210/jc.2012-1205
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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