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Am J Cardiol. 2012 Sep 15;110(6):862-9. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.05.015. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

Usefulness of Doppler echocardiographic left ventricular diastolic function and peak exercise oxygen consumption to predict cardiovascular outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure (from HF-ACTION).

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St. John Hospital and Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA.


Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION) was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial designed to examine the safety and efficacy of aerobic exercise training versus usual care in 2,331 patients with systolic heart failure (HF). In HF-ACTION patients with rest transthoracic echocardiographic measurements, the predictive value of 8 Doppler echocardiographic measurements-left ventricular (LV) diastolic dimension, mass, systolic (ejection fraction) and diastolic (mitral valve peak early diastolic/peak late diastolic [E/A] ratio, peak mitral valve early diastolic velocity/tissue Doppler peak early diastolic myocardial velocity [E/E'] ratio, and deceleration time) function, left atrial dimension, and mitral regurgitation severity-was examined for a primary end point of all-cause death or hospitalization and a secondary end point of cardiovascular disease death or HF hospitalization. Also compared was the prognostic value of echocardiographic variables versus peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)). Mitral valve E/A and E/E' ratios were more powerful independent predictors of clinical end points than the LV ejection fraction but less powerful than peak Vo(2). In multivariate analyses for predicting the primary end point, adding E/A ratio to a basic demographic and clinical model increased the C-index from 0.61 to 0.62, compared with 0.64 after adding peak Vo(2). For the secondary end point, 6 echocardiographic variables, but not the LV ejection fraction or left atrial dimension, provided independent predictive power over the basic model. The addition of E/E' or E/A to the basic model increased the C-index from 0.70 to 0.72 and 0.73, respectively (all p values <0.0001). Simultaneously adding E/A ratio and peak Vo(2) to the basic model increased the C-index to 0.75 (p <0.0005). No echocardiographic variable was significantly related to the change from baseline to 3 months in exercise peak Vo(2). In conclusion, the addition of echocardiographic LV diastolic function variables improves the prognostic value of a basic demographic and clinical model for cardiovascular disease outcomes.

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